Henry Krumb Lecture Series

Bring an outstanding speaker to Local Section meetings through the Henry Krumb Lecture Series.

The Krumb Lecture series aims to broaden section appreciation and understanding of important new methods and technologies.

Access to Industry Experts

Lecturers are selected from the professionals who present technical papers at the MINEXCHANGE SME Annual Conference & Expo. The Krumb Lecture Series is administered by SME and is partially funded by a grant from the Seeley W. Mudd Memorial Fund.

2022 Lecture Series

Select a Krumb Lecturer below to learn more: 

Mary Ann Alvin headshot

DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy Carbon Management (FECM) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) continue to address the potential for onshore production of rare earth elements (REEs) and critical minerals (CMs) from unconventional resources through conduct of the Critical Minerals Sustainability Program. Major thrust areas in this research development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) program will be discussed. Program accomplishments that have been made since 2016 will also be presented.

About the Speaker

Mary Anne Alvin, Rare Earth Element Technology Manager (TM) of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is responsible for validating the technical and economic feasibility for separation and recovery of salable, high purity, rare earth elements from domestic coal-based resources in conventional, prototype, and advanced operating systems. Prior to assuming the TM position, Ms. Alvin served as Division Director for both the Geosciences Division and the Functional Materials Development Division.

Prior to joining NETL, Ms. Alvin had 30 years of experience at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation and at Siemens Westinghouse Power Generation, working in advanced energy systems. As a Fellow Scientist, she led the development of advanced high temperature ceramic, intermetallics, and superalloy materials for components used in the domestic and off-shore, pilot- and demonstration-scale, land-based, power generation island wrap-around systems. She currently holds 28 patents, with additional pending.

Tim Arnold headshot

Mining at DeLamar dates back to the late 1800's and more recently from the 1970's through the 1990's. This presentation will briefly examine past mining and history in the area. But the main focus will be an explanation of Integra Resources work towards re-opening the DeLamar mine. The maiden Preliminary Economic Analysis showed a very robust project, with a Pre-feasibility due in Q4 of 2021. Drilling since has shown excellent exploration results and ample opportunity for growth. DeLamar will rise again.

About the Speaker

Tim Arnold is the Chief Operating Officer of Integra Resources Corp. He has over 35 years of mining experience, primarily in operating and building mines. He was the President of SME in 2016.

Rock Honaker headshot

Rare earth metal production increased to 240,000 metric tons in 2020 which is a 25% increase over the past two years. Future demand from electric car production and renewable energy manufacturing will accelerate the demand even further. Resource and the entire supply chain is an international concern given that China has control over 62% of the world’s metal production and owns most of the intellectual property used through metal production.

In an effort to relieve concerns over supply, the U.S. government is investing in research and development activity to accelerate commercial extraction and recovery of rare earths and critical materials from secondary sources such as coal-based sources. Through funding from the U.S. Department of Energy and the research expertise provided by multiple institutions and production companies, a pilot plant facility has been constructed and used to develop and test various technologies in an effort to prove the economic viability of extracting and purifying rare earths and other critical elements from bituminous coal sources.

About the Speaker

Dr. Honaker is a Professor of Mining Engineering and a designated University Professor with distinction at the University of Kentucky (UK). He received in B.S. (1986), M.S. (1988) and Ph.D. (1992) degrees in Mining & Minerals Engineering from Virginia Tech. Dr. Honaker guides a research program in extractive metallurgy that has been awarded nearly $30 million in research funding and resulting in 250 publications as author or co-author including 140 peer-reviewed articles, seven U.S. patents and patent applications, and over 50 substantive project reports. Over the last four years, Dr. Honaker has worked with federal and state governments, university partners and industrial companies in an effort to design, construct and test a pilotplant for rare earth and critical material recovery and extraction. Dr. Honaker recently served on the Board of Directors for the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration and is currently serving as an Engineering Accreditation Commissioner for ABET as well as an Executive Board member for the Coal Preparation Society of America.

Heather Lawson headshot

Dynamic failure may be defined as the violent ejection of coal or rock within a working area of an underground coal mine. Despite evolving mining techniques and practices, dynamic failures continue to occur. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a hierarchical classification decision tree based upon physical characteristics and potential event source(s), as identified through review of the available literature, historical dynamic failure reports, and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) accident and fatality reports.

These findings highlight the differences between regionally based risk factors in contrast to risk factors associated with the seam itself. These geologic dissimilarities resulted in observable differences in dominant modes of dynamic failure between these two regions and have implications toward the application of more targeted risk mitigation practices. Targeted risk mitigation practices can be enacted only once the sources and mechanisms of failure have been identified.

About the Speaker

The paper will be presented by Heather Lawson. She has a BS in Geology from Fort Lewis College, a ME in geotechnics from Missouri S&T, and is currently working toward a PhD in Geology at Indiana University. She has been a researcher at the Spokane Mining Research Division of NIOSH since 2008, and her expertise is in coal geology and geochemistry, and coal mine ground control.

Mohammad Rezaee headshot

It has been estimated that the amount of coal fly ash (CFA) generated and not reused for commercial purposes in the U.S. is 27 Mt/a. The disposal of such anthropogenic materials in landfill or ash pond has been of environmental concern for decades and resulted in a waste of recoverable resources. Recovering of valuable elements from these waste streams is well aligned with the Waste to Value concept and enhances the sustainability of the current disposal practices. The total rare earth elements (REEs) content of CFA is in the range of 200 to 1220 ppm. However, REEs in CFA are typically encapsulated in a predominant aluminosilicate glassy phase, and their solubilization in acid leaching is, therefore, hindered. In this study, a sequential chemical roasting, water leaching, and acid leaching process was developed for the recovery of REEs from CFA. The process mechanism and optimization are presented.

About the Speaker

Dr. Mohammad Rezaee is Centennial Early Career Development Professor of Mining Engineering in the Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Rezaee holds PhD and MS degrees in mining engineering from the University of Kentucky, and BS degree in mining engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran. He also has two years of industrial experience as a mining engineer consultant. His research works addresses needs for the development of sustainable mining and processing waste disposal practices from which valuables such as rare earth elements can be recovered for commercial use while the remaining materials are processed to generate environmentally benign material. His research experiences and interests include extraction of critical elements from primary and secondary sources, coal preparation, mineral processing, environmental management, computational fluid dynamics and scale modeling. His research results have been published in prestigious journals, books, and conference proceedings. He has received several awards including the Outstanding Young Engineer Award, and Henry Krumb Lecturer award by the Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME).

John Watson headshot

While the waters of the United States landscape continues to shift in the context of agency rulemaking, the regulated community is now trying to get its arms around whether, and to what extent, federal law controls groundwater in the states.

This lecture will address the ever-present flip-flops of the regulatory agencies and the courts related to WOTUS and analyze prospective outcomes concerning upcoming regulatory changes.

About the Speaker

As a defense trial lawyer, John Leonard Watson's law practice spans forty-five years. His complex commercial litigation experience includes representation of clients in the fields of environmental, natural resources, public land, mining, and oil and gas law, toxic tort and construction litigation, real estate development, and special district law.

Mr. Watson taught Environmental Law as adjunct faculty at the University of Denver College of Law for five years and served twice as Chair of the Colorado Bar Association's Environmental Law Section. He serves as a member of that section's Environmental Law Council.

Mr. Watson has published several articles related to litigation, environmental, natural resources, mining, and public land law, and has served as the principal author and speaker at over 180 environmental regulatory program seminars that have been held throughout the country.

2021 Lecture Series

Select a Krumb Lecturer below to learn more: 

2021Krumbphoto_Battulwar.jpg With open-pit mines becoming bigger and steeper around the globe, it has become essential to identify the cracks and monitor them for analysis of potential failures in a more efficient and safer way. This NIOSH-supported research work presents a new technology for remote detection of tension cracks in U.S. open-pit mines using UAV and artificial intelligence. Firstly, a novel android application has been designed and programmed for collecting high-resolution images of an area in open-pit mines. Secondly, tension cracks are automatically detected from these images using photogrammetry and state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Finally, a web-based platform has been developed for crack monitoring and interfacing with various components of the technology.
About the Speaker
Rushikesh Battulwar | Ph.D. Student, University of Nevada Reno | Reno, NV, United States
Rushikesh Battulwar is a Ph.D. student at the Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, University of Nevada, Reno. He completed his BS from India School of Mines, Dhanbad, and MS from the University of Nevada, Reno, both in the field of mining engineering. His research is focused on the application of drones and artificial Intelligence for high wall stability in open-pit mines. He is a student member of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (SME) and International Society of Explosive Engineers (ISEE).
2021KrumbPhoto_Chirinos.jpg Several articles exist highlighting the switching and real options methodology benefits for planning and valuing mining operations. Yet, the industry hasn’t supported these concepts to the degree academia has. This paper shows an actual example in an operating open cut mine, whereby a logical simulation of concepts including: simulation of: mine planning; coal price volatility; binomial trees; probability of failure and usage of the switching options themselves are effectively deployed at a budget level to assess the value of changing the operations mining method. The paper demonstrates the value of implementing a platform that quantitatively uses these concepts to enable management to make timely operational decisions to face uncertainty.
About the Speaker
Paulo Chirinos | Technical Manager, Anglo American Australia | Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Paulo Chirinos works in the Strategy, Joint Ventures and Business Development area in the Anglo American Bulks Commodities business unit. He is experienced in operational and technical leadership in cross commodities such as metallurgical and thermal coal, PGMs, manganese, etc., together with a diverse range of geographies in Australia, South Africa and South America. Paulo holds a B.S. degree in Mining Engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru and an M.S. degree in Mineral Economics from Curtin University in Western Australia. This lecture is about integrating mineral economics research in the field of real options into a practical and effective operating framework.
2021Krumb_Johnson_hardhat-(2).jpg Today’s mining challenges, combined with the overwhelming volume of data available and the dizzying rate of technological change, sometimes make deciding the “right way” to address critical issues even harder than the rock you are mining! Understanding how other mines have addressed issues like ore tracking, risk mitigation, asset productivity, or just improving the streamlining and converting of data into usable information, can provide inspiration for addressing your own operational and technology challenges.
This presentation will approach the subject from both a future state perspective, addressing the new normal we will need to consider, as well as examine case studies of technologies recently deployed in international surface mines. Any view of Digital Evolution today must incorporate understanding what an “intentionally distributed workforce” (vs. the sudden impact of remote work and WFH) could look like and how to get there. At the same time, while we adjust to these changes, mining’s other challenges have not gone away. Therefore, we will also cover examples of evolving technologies that have been deployed, benefitting from lessons learned, success factors, ways the projects overcame adoption barriers, technology selection methods, and more.
If a goal of your digital transformation strategy is ensuring you are in the “Early Majority,” vs. being a true Innovator or Late Adopter, this session will provide examples of how to maximize impact and value to the organization of that approach, including configuring technologies to your mine’s unique operations.
About the Speaker
Debra Johnson | CEO / Global Director, Eco-Edge | Phoenix, AZ, United States
Debra Johnson is a C-level global executive and advisor with expertise in digital industrial strategy, business operations, innovation, and financial management, with a focus on industrial sectors. A technology evangelist and digital innovator, Debra is Founder and CEO of Eco-Edge, a sustainability and digital solutions provider, driving increased profits for industrial sectors. Her blend of consulting and corporate executive experience provides insights for identifying and bridging gaps; solving problems with efficiency by connecting ideas, tools, and processes; distilling goals into detailed action plans. Previously, Debra was Digital Mine Global Director of Business Operations and Innovation at GE - Digital Solutions (a Division of GE Transportation, now Wabtec), helping the team and customers successfully navigate digital technology implementation and their transformation journeys.
2021KrumbPhoto_Klemetti.jpg Ground control failures continue to be one of the leading causes of injuries and fatalities in underground coal mining. The roof, rib, floor and pillars are four areas of potential ground failures that miners, engineers, and consultants are continually evaluating. Quite often, these four underground structures are evaluated independently. A recent push to consider them as a system and in a similar manner as design engineers evaluate mechanical systems has highlighted the need to fully understand the interrelationship among the roof, rib, floor, and pillar. This relationship combines the geometry of the mine layout, geological environment, installed support, and even the timing of the coal extraction. Several studies using field observations and instrumentation show that these relationships can be independent at times, while being dependent in other scenarios. Cases with good roof conditions while the rib and floor deteriorate are contrasted with cases where the roof, rib, and floor deteriorate at the same time. The presented cases in this study demonstrate the importance of understanding the geological environment and mine design to ensure that the proper support is installed.
About the Speaker
Ted M. Klemetti II | Senior Research Mining Engineer, NIOSH | Pittsburgh, PA, United States
Ted Klemetti is currently a Senior Research Mining Engineer in the Ground Control Branch at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Mining Research Division. Ted earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering from West Virginia University in 2003, a Master of Science Degree in Mining Engineering from West Virginia University in 2007 and joined NIOSH in 2006. Since then, Ted has been actively engaged in research improving the health and safety of U.S. mine workers. He has led various research efforts focused on moisture sensitivity, roof bolts, instrumentation, coal mine bumps, longwall gateroads, and bleeder entry ground stability for underground coal mines. He has also led numerous technical collaborations on research projects with universities, mining companies, international partners, mining equipment manufacturers, and other government agencies.
2021Krumb_Photo_MacIver.jpg Sensor-based sorting is increasingly used in the mining industry to reject waste rock and increase the head grade of the ore that enters the mill or plant. Improvements in X-ray transmission-based (XRT) sorter technology (speed, resolution, energy) now permit the extraction of multiple features from single ore particles, so it is important to understand how these signal features can be used to reject waste material. This presentation will describe the application of an image correlation method (using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy or SEM) to estimate the apatite grade and distribution in single ore particles of a “reject” or low-grade phosphate ore. This approach considers ore heterogeneity at the particle level, and is one way to understand how an X-ray transmission (XRT) signal may be correlated with ore grade and distribution.
About the Speaker
Ryan MacIver | Technical Director, Chem Etc. LTD. | Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Ryan MacIver is an image scientist and software developer with a background in mineral processing and chemistry. He has a Masters in mining engineering and is completing his PhD in mining engineering. His PhD research uses X-ray computed tomography images to investigate the structure and dewatering properties of tailings. He co-founded Chem Etc. Ltd. to develop software to support sensor-based sorting studies (drill core analysis and online camera-based particle size estimation).
2021Krumb-Photo_Raj.jpg Advanced data science techniques have been applied in a verity of fields to improve health and safety and reduce accident and fatality rates. Similar to other industries, the mining industry requires the adoption and implementation of modern research methods to continue boosting safety in mine operations. Text analytics, in general, is one of the essential methods used to analyze unstructured data that is in text format. Using text mining and Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to extract patterns with incidents and identify insightful information from contents and reports is extremely valuable to produce actionable recommendations and strategies for applying text mining and NLP to accident text data.
In this research investigation, advanced text mining techniques and NLP were applied to the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) final fatality reports in metal and non-metal operations (surface and underground) to perform preprocessing, Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA), and various statistics to discover insightful word relation patterns in the reports. For this purpose, the final fatality reports from 2010 through 2017 were collected and cleaned. In addition, topic modeling was done to group the reports with similar underlying themes or topics.
About the Speaker
Vaibhav Raj | General Engineer, NIOSH | Spokane, WA, United States
Vaibhav Raj is working as Associate Service Fellow at National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). He has been with NIOSH for over 5 years working on occupational safety and health issues pertinent to the mining industry. He received his PhD from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) in 2015. His PhD work was focused on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of an open pit under air inversion. Raj received his master’s degree from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur and bachelor’s degree in mining engineering from BIT Sindri (Vinoba Bhave University). His area of interest includes mine ventilation, automation, CFD, numerical modeling, geostatistics, production scheduling, and operation research. He has served on SME Coal & Energy Division’s Executive Committee, Scholarship Committee and Mine Safety Committee.
2021KrumbPhoto_Sansao.jpg The mineral industry uses tremendous amounts of water every year in the processing of ores. Sustainable practices associated with the processing of ores is of critical importance. This investigation evaluates a dry particle separation process based upon adhesive forces. Glass spheres were chosen to represent silicate minerals, the most abundant type of minerals found in mineral deposits. Disks and beads were surface treated with trichloro(octadecyl)silane (TCOD) and trimethoxysilylpropyl diethylenetriamine (TMPA). A horizontal impact test was designed and tested to calculate the adhesion force between the glass spheres and a glass disk substrate. Impact of the disk/particle puck causes particle removal as tensile forces act on the particles. The tensile detachment force and adhesive force are equal at a critical particle size. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory was used to determine the interfacial energy between the particles and the surface. The average interfacial energy of pure glass, glass treated with TCOD and with TMPA were 48.53 mJ/m2, 21.57 mJ/m2, and 40.08 mJ/m2, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the literature values.
About the Speaker
Bernardo Moreno Baqueiro Sansao | Research Assistant, South Dakota School of Mines | Rapid City, South Dakota, United States
Bernardo Moreno Baqueiro Sansao received his BS in Mining Engineering from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Brazil, in 2016. In the year of 2014 Bernardo had the opportunity to study abroad at the South Dakota School of Mines. From 2016 to 2018 he worked in two gold mines in Brazil as a process engineer, responsible for the cyanide detoxification process, water treatment plant and gold smelting process. In the Fall of 2018 Bernardo went back to the South Dakota School of Mines to start his PhD. His research project is to develop a sustainable system to separate and concentrate minerals without water based upon adhesive forces and surface energy.
2021KrumbPhoto_Thomas.png Biochemical reactors (BCRs) have become an important treatment unit within passive treatment systems (PTS) designed for mine impacted water; however, operational longevity has remained a persistent concern. This presentation will present an overview on the background, history and principles on the use of BCRs to treat mine-impacted water. This will include a detailed review of the configuration, operation and performance of a typical BCR system and will provide data and observations from two long-term (>8 years) operating BCR systems as examples: Coal Mac 002 PTS in southern West Virginia and Mayer Ranch Passive Treatment System (MRPTS) located in the Tar Creek Superfund Site in northeastern Oklahoma. This presentation will demonstrate that BCRs are an effective low cost, long term, and sustainable option for meeting water quality targets of mine-impacted waters. In addition, we will touch on the benefits and limitations, capital and operation-maintenance costs, and regulatory challenges of passive treatment using biochemical reactors.
About the Speaker
Robert ("B.T.") Thomas, Ph.D. | Jacobs, Geochemist | Atlanta, GA, United States
Robert ("B.T.") Thomas, Ph.D., is a project geochemist. He has 23 years of experience and expertise in the generation and treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) and specializes in Passive Treatment Systems for Mine Impacted Water (MIW). BT has led the design and participated as a subject matter expert on numerous passive treatment design projects since joining Jacobs 12 years ago.
2021KrumbPhoto_VanDyke.png Bleeder entries are critically important to longwall mining for the moving of supplies and miners and the dilution of mine air contaminants and must stay open for many years. Standing support in moderate cover bleeder entries were observed, numerically modeled, and instrumented by researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The measurements of the installed borehole pressure cells (BPCs), standing support load cells and convergence meters, and roof extensometers are presented in this paper in addition to the numerical modeling results and visual observations made by the NIOSH researchers in the bleeder entries. The results include the effects of multiple panels being extracted in close proximity to the instrumented site as well as over one and a half years of aging. As expected, standing supports closer to the longwall gob showed the greatest load and convergence. The roof sag appeared generally independent of the proximity to the longwall gob. The BPC readings were driven by both the proximity to the gob and the depth into the pillar. The results of this study demonstrated that the entry roof can respond independently of the pillar and standing support loading. In addition, the rear abutment stress experienced by this bleeder entry design was minimal. The closer the mine development, pillar, or supports are to the gob, the greater the applied load due to rear abutment stress.
About the Speaker
Mark Alexander Van Dyke | Physical Scientist (Geologist) NIOSH/PMRD, Ground Control Branch | Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Mark is from Morgantown, West Virginia, He enlisted in the Navy in 2000 as an electronics technician and served 5 years on the submarine USS Boise, and deployed for Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom. After the military he graduated with a B.S. in Geology from West Virginia University in 2009. As a geologist for the West Virginia Geological Survey, Mark worked on the Marcellus Shale gas well GIS database and bedrock mapping project. He worked for CONSOL Energy as a ground control geologist for 6 years covering 12 longwalls in the Pittsburgh and Pocahontas coal seams. He is currently working for NIOSH as a geologist with four years of service and is involved with many projects such as Design Methodology for Rib Control in Coal Mines, Design Procedures for Gateroad Ground Control and Underground Stone Mine Pillar Design in Challenging Conditions.
2021KrumbPhoto_Watkins.jpg This paper summarizes the changes in permeability at three boreholes located above an abutment pillar at a longwall coal mine in Southwestern Pennsylvania. The motivation of this study was to better characterize the potential interaction between shale gas wells and the mine environment, through measurement of permeability changes in the coal mine overburden caused by mining induced deformations. Measuring permeability changes around boreholes affected by longwall mining is an effective method to indicate changes in the fracture network above longwall abutment pillars and estimate the capacity for gas flow from shale gas wells to the mine environment. This study measured permeability through falling-head slug tests at different longwall face positions during the mining of two longwall panels on either side of the test abutment pillar where the three test boreholes were located. The boreholes were drilled to different depths above the active mining level and had screened intervals to evaluate the response of different stratigraphic zones to mining-induced stresses. The results showed that the permeability around the slotted intervals of each borehole increased from their pre-mining to their post-mining and the permeability also increased from mining of the first longwall panel to mining of the second one, adjacent to the pillar.
Eric Watkins | Mining Engineer, NIOSH | Pittsburgh, PA, United States
Eric Watkins is a mining engineer with the Fires and Explosions Branch at the NIOSH Pittsburgh Mining Research Division since 2019. Eric earned his Bachelors of Science in Mining Engineering in 2016 and his Masters of Science in Mining Engineering in 2018, with both degrees earned at Virginia Tech. His research areas include mine ventilation, flow through porous media, mine fires and computational fluid dynamics modelling.
2021Krumb_Young_casual.png Orfom® D8 is a low carbon-chain trithiocarbonate ((NaOOC)CH2SCSSNa) with anionic functional groups at both ends. It was tested as an organic depressant in the differential flotation of molybdenite from chalcopyrite in the presence of either sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIPX) or potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX). Results show that it depresses chalcopyrite while molybdenite remains floatable. Orfom® D8 appears to adsorb specifically on chalcopyrite through its trithiol (CS3-) functional group via both chemisorption and metal complexation. Chalcopyrite becomes hydrophilic due to the carbonate (COO-) functional group protruding from the surface. Because Orfom® D8 does not appear to bond with molybdenite, it remains hydrophobic. Results from a variety of spectroscopic tools (XPS and FTIR) are corroborated with cyclic voltammetry and zeta potential studies as well as DFT molecular models. Successful trial runs at large pilot plant facilities are illustrated along with the economics comparing Orfom® D8 to traditional inorganic NaSH depressant.
Courtney Young, PhD, QP | Lewis S. Prater Distinguished Professor, Montana Technological University | Butte, MT United States
Dr. Courtney Young is a graduate of three premiere mineral processing and extractive metallurgical engineering institutions. He loves to apply these technologies to recover critical materials as well as solve mining sustainability problems associated with waste processing, water remediation, tailings and slags recycling, ash/dust and spent pot-liner treatment, energy reduction, and flowsheet development. While a faculty member for over 27 years, Courtney has taught numerous courses for students and short courses for professionals. His research has been funded by numerous entities ranging from federal government to industry. Dr. Young enjoys working with companies to help them solve problems and/or work on projects that they cannot get to, particularly when it employs students and gets them real-world experiences.